This is a note on how most modern program languages have important capability attributes and most modern operating systems do not. From the name of this site you might guess that I favor those capability attributes.
By operating system I mean here what are the rules that govern whether a program running within can access
Several decades ago “memory” meant core and the system might have a few million bits of it. Files might mean disk and you might have a few billion bits of that. Habits were set then that have morphed into committed beliefs today. Those habits were bad even then.
Then and now I write a program with a textual name “temp” for instance. The compiler and loader combination would assign a binary number—an address—to that variable and the running program would use that constant number to access the variable value of temp. If the language were safe then that address .........